January 28, 2020
The conversation about mental health has reached an all-time high, as people across the globe become more aware of the facts and truths about mental illnesses. The estimated number of people around the world with mental health concerns was pegged at less than 900 million as of 2017.[i]
While there are many different types of mental illness, the most common ones include depression, anxiety and panic disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and eating disorders.[ii] Anxiety disorders were the most prevalent, affecting an estimated 4 percent of global population, as of 2017.[iii]
The World Health Organization publication "The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders"[iv] contains a comprehensive list grouped under 2 broad categories, namely, organic, including symptomatic, mental disorders, and mental and behavioural disorders due to psychoactive substance use.
Because of the current buzz about mental health, these disorders have gained attention. We focus and define the most common ones to aid in the further understanding of mental disorders.
Depression: Included under the category of mood or affective disorders, it is characterized by prolonged sadness, including hopelessness, helplessness or worthlessness.[v] This type of clinical depression is treatable.
Some symptoms of depression include "reduced concentration and attention; reduced self-esteem and self-confidence; bleak and pessimistic views of the future and ideas or acts of self-harm or suicide".[vi]
Anxiety and panic disorders: Reactions, both psychological and physical, to certain objects or situations are what define this type of disorder. From fear or dread to sweating or increased heartbeat, anxiety disorders are manifest in inappropriate or disproportionate reactions, which may even extend to impaired normal functioning.[vii]
Among the symptoms are apprehension (difficulty in concentrating), motor tension (fidgeting, inability to relax), and autonomic overactivity (lightheadedness and sweating).[viii]
[ii] Goldberg, J. [2019, April]. Types of Mental Illnesses. Retrieved from https://www.webmd.com/mental-health/mental-health-types-illness#1
[v] Casarella, J. [2019, September]. What is Depression? Retrieved from https://www.webmd.com/depression/guide/what-is-depression#1
[vii] Goldberg, J. [2019, April]. Types of Mental Illnesses. Retrieved from https://www.webmd.com/mental-health/mental-health-types-illness#1